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piraten somalia kreuzfahrtschiff

erstellt am: 27.11.2020 | von: | Kategorie(n): Allgemein

[9][10] To address this, in June 2008, following a letter from the Somali Transitional Federal Government (TFG) to the President of the UN Security Council requesting assistance for the TFG's efforts to tackle acts of piracy off the coast of Somalia, the UN Security Council unanimously passed a declaration authorizing nations that have the consent of the Transitional Federal Government to enter Somali territorial waters to deal with pirates. We consider sea bandits [to be] those who illegally fish and dump in our seas and dump waste in our seas and carry weapons in our seas." After a period of relative calm, threat has spread and evolved After chasing down the skiff and its mothership, US military captured five Somalis. Additionally, while the OBP paper alleged that pirate activity has had a significantly negative impact on regional economies, particularly the Kenyan tourism industry, tourist-derived revenue in Kenya rose by 32% in 2011. [98], According to many interviewed maritime security firms, ship owner groups, lawyers and insurance companies, fear of pirate attacks has increased the likelihood of violent encounters at sea, as untrained or overeager vessel guards have resorted to shooting indiscriminately without first properly assessing the actual threat level. In 1992, reports ran in the European press of "unnamed European firms" contracting with local warlords to dump toxic waste both in Somalia and off Somalia's shores. The huge waves which battered northern Somalia after the tsunami are believed to have stirred up tonnes of nuclear and toxic waste that was illegally dumped in Somali waters by several European firms – front companies created by the Italian mafia. According to a 2008 BBC report, the pirates can be divided into three main categories: The closest Somali term for 'pirate' is burcad badeed, which means "ocean robber". Economic losses through piracy in West Africa increased by more than 10 percent to $793.7 million. The pirates get most of their weapons from Yemen, but a significant number come from Mogadishu, Somalia's capital. Hostage of Somali pirates react as they arrive at the Jomo Kenyatta International Airport in Nairobi on October 23, 2016. [66] As of 2012, the pirates primarily operated from the Galmudug region in the central section of the country. [83][88], During the height of the piracy phenomenon in 2008, local residents complained that the presence of so many armed men made them feel insecure and that their free spending ways caused wild fluctuations in the local exchange rate. The majority took place in Nigerian waters. [150], By December 2013, the US Office of Naval Intelligence reported that only nine vessels had been attacked during the year by the pirates, with no successful hijackings. Wenn somalische Piraten auf dem offenen Meer angreifen, lassen sie nicht mehr locker. [69] Various photographs of pirates in situ indicate that their weapons are predominantly AK-47, AKM, Type 56, RPK, PKM, RPG-7, and Tokarev pistols. There, catches have dropped to dramatically low levels, whereas in Somalia they have risen back to more acceptable levels since the beginning of the piracy. A strong Somali government would be able to maintain effective policing and coast guard services, he argues, and implement new counter piracy legislation. [49], In early May 2010, Russian special forces retook a Russian oil tanker that had been hijacked by 11 pirates. Piracy off the coast of Somalia occurs in the Gulf of Aden, Guardafui Channel and Somali Sea, in Somali territorial waters and other areas. Somali pirates carrying out preparations to a skiff boat used to attack ships. [8] However, many foreign naval vessels chasing pirates were forced to break off when the pirates entered Somali territorial waters. With the help of motherships that include captured fishing and merchant vessels, the operating range of the skiffs has been increased far into the Indian Ocean. [16] Additionally, only 1 ship was attacked in the third quarter of 2012 compared to 36 during the same period in 2011.[15]. [41][42] Since the Dutch Naval Forces were part of a NATO exercise, but not on an EU mission, they lacked legal jurisdiction to keep the pirates so they released them. More than 6 million people need food assistance in Somalia. For their part, shipping companies often ignore with naval guidelines on how best to prevent pirate attacks in order to cut down on costs. One died in the assault, and a week later Russian military officials reported that the remainder were freed due to weaknesses in international law but died before reaching the Somali coast. In the earlier years of the phenomenon in 2008, it was reported that many local residents in pirate hubs such as Harardhere appreciated the rejuvenating effect that the pirates' on-shore spending and restocking had on their small towns, a presence which often provided jobs and opportunity when there were comparatively fewer. They attribute the recent abundance and variety of marine stock to the pirates scaring away predatory foreign fishing trawlers, which have for decades deprived local dhows of a livelihood. [48], In April 2010, the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) alluded to possible covert and overt action against the pirates. [54], In late February 2011, piracy targeting smaller yachts and collecting ransom made headlines when four Americans were killed aboard their vessel, Quest, by their captors, while a military ship shadowed them. [45] The ship was released on 10 December 2009 after a ransom of almost US$3,000,000 was paid. [17] However, this is only a fraction of the up to 30,000 merchant vessels which pass through that area. [90][83][86][91][92], Another report from 2011 published by the consultancy firm Geopolicity Inc. investigated the causes and consequences of international piracy, with a particular focus on such activity off the coast of Somalia. Farrell points to a lack of co-ordination between naval fleets and security forces such as EU NAVFOR, which have a range of remits and priorities including prevention of drug smuggling and people trafficking. At least two ransom payments, reportedly over GBP 500,000, had been made. The vessel, sailing under the Liberian flag, was transporting iron from Ukraine to China. Moreover, the global costs of piracy reportedly represent a small fraction of total maritime shipping expenses and are significantly lower than more routine costs, such as those brought on by port theft, bad weather conditions or fuel-related issues. Two skiffs approached the tanker and boarded the vessel off the northern coast of Somalia. This led to erosion of the fish stock and local fishermen started to band together to try to protect their resources. [29] The Indian Navy later defended its actions by stating that its ship was fired upon first. Detained pirates also indicated to UNODC officials that some measure of cooperation with Al-Shabaab militants was necessary, as they have increasingly launched maritime raids from areas in southern Somalia controlled by the insurgent outfit. International organizations began to express concern over the new wave of piracy due to its high cost to global trade and the incentive to profiteer by insurance companies and others. "The perception of risk to shipping decreased, which gave pirate groups the opportunity to commit attacks," she says. [75] Pirates say ransom money is paid in large-denomination US dollar bills. [103][104] According to Muammar al-Gaddafi, "It is a response to greedy Western nations, who invade and exploit Somalia's water resources illegally. Al-Shabaab members have also extorted the pirates, demanding protection money from them and forcing seized pirate gang leaders in Harardhere to hand over 20% of future ransom proceeds. [71] They show that while attacks can be expected at any time, most occur during the day; often in the early hours. "The Somali coastline has been destroyed, and we believe this money is nothing compared to the devastation that we have seen on the seas. [140] However, trials are continuing in Europe. But if the current wave of piracy continues, it could focus minds on Somalia's plight. [65] An official list issued in 2010 by the Somali government of 40 apprehended pirate suspects noted that 80% (32/40) were born in Somalia's southern conflict zones, while only 20% (8/40) came from the more stable northern regions. Commitment to Free Seas, Leaders Say", "Somali pirates seize Iranian, Thai ships", "Somali pirates release oil tanker and crew members without ransom, officials say", "Somali pirates release oil tanker and crew without ransom", "Pirates hijack oil tanker off Somalia's coast in 1st reported piracy in 5 years", "SomaliaReport: Why Pirates Fight Each Other", "Magacyada Maxaabiis Soomaali ah oo ku xiran Seychelles", "SomaliaReport: Puntland Marine Police Force Enter Eyl", "Somali pirate: 'We're not murderers... we just attack ships, "Inside The EU's Anti-Piracy Nerve Centre", Somali pirates transform villages into boom towns, "Somali pirates get help from expats in Canada", "Shabaab-Somali pirate links growing: UN adviser", "Piracy ransom cash ends up with Somali militants", "The declining impact of piracy on maritime transport in the Indian Ocean: Statistical analysis of 5-year vessel tracking data", "Can We Ever Assess the True Cost of Piracy? The ransom demand is a means of "reacting to the toxic waste that has been continually dumped on the shores of our country for nearly 20 years", Januna Ali Jama, a spokesman for the pirates said. On 14 January 2011, while speaking to reporters, Commodore Michiel Hijmans of the Royal Netherlands Navy stated that the use of hijacked vessels in more recent hijackings had led to increased range of pirating activities, as well as difficulty to actively thwart future events due to the use of kidnapped sailors as human shields.[51]. Piracy authorities are concerned that the threat is escalating. Eight pirates were killed and five captured in the operation; the crew of 21 was freed with the captain suffering a gunshot wound to the stomach. Since 2010, pirates have mainly operated from the Galmudug region to the south. [84], Some benefits from the piracy have also been noted. [57], In March 2011, the Indian Navy intercepted a pirate mother vessel 600 nautical miles (1,100 km) west of the Indian coast in the Arabian Sea and rescued 13 hostages. Iran (48%) and Yemen (31%) accounted for the vast majority of foreign fish catch in the most recent year of analysis. ), In November 2008, Somali pirates began hijacking ships well outside the Gulf of Aden, perhaps targeting ships headed for the port of Mombasa, Kenya. On 5 January 2012, an MH-60S Seahawk from the guided-missile destroyer USS Kidd, part of the USS John C. Stennis Carrier Strike Group, detected a suspected pirate skiff alongside the Iranian-flagged fishing boat, Al Molai. [43][44] In 2008 the pirates are estimated to have gained about $80 million through ransom payments. [96], Of the 4,185 seafarers whose ships had been attacked by the pirates and the 1,090 who were held hostage in 2010, a third were reportedly abused. In addition, security contractors and the arms industry have profited from the phenomenon.[3]. [127][128], Government officials from the Galmudug administration in the north-central Hobyo district have also reportedly attempted to use pirate gangs as a bulwark against Islamist insurgents from southern Somalia's conflict zones;[129] other pirates are alleged to have reached agreements of their own with the Islamist groups, although a senior commander from the Hizbul Islam militia vowed to eradicate piracy by imposing sharia law when his group briefly took control of Harardhere in May 2010 and drove out the local pirates. On 28 May 2007, a Chinese sailor was killed by the pirates because the ship's owners failed to meet their ransom demand. [47] Omer, one of the pirates holding the British couple, claimed the seven men were fishermen, but a European Union Naval Force spokesman stated they were captured as they fired AK-47 assault rifles at a French fishing vessel. Since 2005, many international organizations have expressed concern over the rise in acts of piracy. [41], On 23 April 2009, international donors pledged over $250 million for Somalia, including $134 million to increase the African Union peacekeeping mission from 4,350 troops to 8,000 troops and $34 million for Somali security forces. The Indian Navy deployed INS Cankarso which located and engaged the mothership 100 nautical miles (190 km) north of the Minicoy island. [93], According to a 2012 investigative piece by the Somalia Report, the OBP paper and other similar reports that attempt to calibrate the global cost of piracy produce inaccurate estimates based on a variety of factors. It also received significant foreign investment funds for various fishery development projects, as the Somali fishing industry was considered to have a lot of potential owing to its unexploited marine stocks. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), general and complete arms embargo against Somalia, Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal, Shared Awareness and Deconfliction (SHADE), Contact Group on Piracy off the Coast of Somalia, Operation Enduring Freedom – Horn of Africa, 2012 Italian Navy Marines shooting incident in the Laccadive Sea, "Chinese Navy Hands Pirates Over to Somali Authorities", "Somali pirates a far cry from buccaneers of old", ""'Toxic waste' behind Somali piracy", October 2008", "Combined Task Force 150 Thwarts Criminal Activities", "U.S. destroyer pursuing hijacked ship in Somali waters, military says", "Navy regularly releases Somali pirates, even when caught in the act", "Somalia Pirates Adopt Troubling New Tactics", "Crew say lucky to be alive after Somali hijack", "Somalia Piracy Falls to Six-Year Low as Guards Defend Ships", "Somalia: International Piracy Attacks Reach Five-Year Low in 2012", "Pirates Hijack Two Tankers Within 24 Hours Off Somali Shore", "India: Pirate 'mother ship' left in flames", "Somali pirates killed Chinese sailor-official", "New Somalia piracy resolution adopted at UN", "India calls for UN force to deter pirates off Somalia", "Chinese fishing boat reported hijacked off Kenya", "Ship carrying 20 Americans believed hijacked off Somalia", "Official: US sea captain faced imminent danger", "US acted after pirates aimed at ship captain", "Captain jumps overboard, SEALs shoot pirates, official says", "Indictment (U.S. v. Abduwali Abdukhadir Muse)", "Clinton says releasing pirates sends 'wrong signal, "NATO frees pirate hostages, Belgian ship seized", "Donors Pledge Over $250 Million for Somalia", "Donors pledge over $250 million for Somalia", "No dejo de pensar en la ni Niña de 12 años que vi cuando me llevaron a otro barco y en la cocinera violada por los piratas", "Somali pirates free Greek ship with Ukrainian crew", "Pirates Step Up Threats Against British Couple, Threaten to 'Punish' Them", "BBC News: Somali pirates free UK couple Paul and Rachel Chandler", "Russia says freed pirates didn't reach land", "Smarter Somali pirates thwarting navies, NATO admits", "Navy storms hijacked ship, rescues all 21 sailors", "Various News Reports, collected on Google News", "BBC News: Indian navy seizes pirates' Indian Ocean mothership", "Americans slain by captors on hijacked yacht; pirates killed, arrested", "Pirater truer med at dræbe gidsler –", "Navy intercepts pirate ship, rescues 13 sailors", "Indian navy captures 16 Somali pirates on Iranian ship", "Pirate Capture Shows U.S. [26] The frequency and sophistication of the attacks also increased around this time, as did the size of vessels being targeted. According to federal prosecutor Johan Delmulle, Hassan was responsible for the hijacking of dozens of commercial ships from 2008 to 2013. The Somali government has been active in policing the area, though some believe that it wants to collaborate with the pirates as a bulwark against others and for financial gain. Such longstanding, deep-rooted issues will not be easily resolved. [149], In October 2013, Mohamed Abdi Hassan ("Afweyne") was arrested in Belgium for having allegedly masterminded the 2009 hijacking of the Belgian dredge vessel Pompei, abducted its crew, and participated in a criminal organization. Only when piracy appeared in the region the lack of effective sovereign control over the Gulf of Aden was problematized".[119]. [145] Judge Raymond A. Jackson, a Federal District Court judge in Norfolk, Virginia threw out the piracy charge, which dates from enactment in 1819 when piracy was defined only as robbery at sea. [90][83] According to Admiral Terence E. McKnight, ransom demands and payments have risen exponentially and the financers and pirates decided they are willing to wait as long as it takes to receive "high seven-figure payouts". The paper asserted that what began as an attempt in the mid-1990s by Somali fishermen to protect their territorial waters has extended far beyond their seaboard and grown into an emerging market in its own right. [148], On 28 January 2011, pursuant to the naval engagement of the pirate mother vessel MV Prantalay (a hijacked Thai trawler) by Car Nicobar-class fast attack craft|INS Cankarso, the Indian Navy and the Indian Coast Guard killed 10 pirates and apprehended 15, while rescuing 20 Thai and Burmese fishermen that were held aboard the ship as hostages. One of the five has already applied for asylum in the Netherlands. [6] In most of the hijackings, the pirates have not harmed their prisoners. After a period of declining piracy incidents, a new spate of hijackings have taken place off the coast of Somalia. "The increase in kidnap and ransom attacks is troubling as they tend to entail greater violence," said report co-author Maisie Pigeon. "[102][111], At the same time, foreign trawlers began illegally fishing Somalia's seas, with an estimated $300 million of tuna, shrimp, and lobster being taken each year, depleting stocks previously available to local fishermen. [56] [144], On 1 April 2010, USS Nicholas was on patrol off the Somali coast when it took fire from men in a small skiff. Al Molai had been hijacked and used as a mothership for pirate operations throughout the Persian Gulf, members of the Iranian vessel's crew reported. Others faulted them for excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages and khat. [18] The rate of attacks in January and February 2009 was about 10 times higher than during the same period in 2008 and "there have been almost daily attacks in March",[17] with 79 attacks,[19] 21 successful, by mid-April. But adhering to BMP4 alone is unlikely to resolve the issue long term. Ze eisen losgeld voor de bemanning. UNEP continues that the current situation along the Somali coastline poses a very serious environmental hazard not only in Somalia but also in the eastern Africa sub-region.[107][108]. Paris Declaration Respecting Maritime Law, Jim Hawkins and the Curse of Treasure Island, Sudanese nomadic conflicts (2009–present), Sudanese conflict in South Kordofan and Blue Nile (2011–present), Communal conflicts in Nigeria (1998–present), Lord's Resistance Army insurgency (1987–present), Eritrean–Ethiopian border conflict (2000–2018), Allied Democratic Forces insurgency (1996–present),, Military operations involving the United Kingdom, Military operations involving the United States, Illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from October 2010, Wikipedia articles in need of updating from August 2020, All Wikipedia articles in need of updating, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from August 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Ex-militiamen, who previously fought for the local clan warlords, or ex-military from the former, Technical experts, who operate equipment such as, This page was last edited on 26 November 2020, at 15:07. According to marine biologists, indicators are that the local fishery is recovering because of the lack of commercial-scale fishing. The crew included 12 Iranians and four Pakistanis.[59]. "The best way is to invest in the national government, to build capacity at national level.". [106], Following the Indian Ocean tsunami of December 2004, allegations have emerged that after the outbreak of the Somali Civil War in late 1991, Somalia's long, remote shoreline was used as a dump site for the disposal of toxic waste. [11] On the advice of lawyers, the Royal Navy and other international naval forces have often released suspected pirates that they have captured because, although the men are frequently armed, they have not been caught engaging in acts of piracy and have thus not technically committed a crime. These groups, using small boats, would sometimes hold vessels and crew for ransom. A visit, board, search and seizure team from Kidd boarded the dhow, a traditional Arabian sailing vessel, and detained 15 suspected pirates who had been holding a 13-member Iranian crew hostage for several weeks. The latter contributions have been estimated at around $1.3–$2 billion a year, exponentially dwarfing pirate ransom proceeds, which total only a few million dollars annually and are difficult to track in terms of spending. [28] Later, it was claimed to be a Thai trawler being hijacked by pirates. With the region badly affected by poverty and government corruption, there was little political motivation at the local level to deal with the crisis. [41] After an attack on Handytankers Magic, a petroleum tanker, the Dutch frigate De Zeven Provinciën tracked the pirates back to a pirate mothership and captured them. On 15 January 2011 13 Somali pirates seized Samho Jewelry, a Maltese-flagged chemical carrier operated by Samho Shipping, 650 km southeast of Muscat. CIA officials had been publicly warning of this potential threat for months. "[105], Pirate leader Sugule Ali said their motive was "to stop illegal fishing and dumping in our waters … We don't consider ourselves sea bandits. Poverty is a major cause of piracy in Somalia, which is currently enduring a devastating famine. It is unlikely the men will be returned to Somalia after their sentence, as Somalia is considered too dangerous for deportation. But the report noted that the vigilance of vessels in the area had decreased, which Pigeon believes played a part in the spate of attacks in 2017. [12], Due to improved anti-piracy measures the success of piracy acts on sea decreased dramatically by the end of 2011, with only 4 vessels hijacked in the last quarter versus 17 in the last quarter of the preceding year. (CNN)A small Iranian fishing boat was hijacked off the coast of Somalia Tuesday, a local mayor reported. ", "Maritime Piracy Costs Global Community 12 Billion a Year", "The Economic Cost of Somali Piracy 2011", "Outgunned Somali pirates can hardly believe their luck", "Private navy planned to counter pirate raids", "Plunder, Politics, Presumption and Puntland", "Kenyan Fishermen Celebrate Somali Pirates", "Deaths of Seafarers in Somali Pirate Attacks Soar", "Shooting to Kill Pirates Risks Blackwater Moment", "Torture by Somali pirates detailed at Va. trial", "UN envoy decries waste dumping off Somalia", "Predictable Distortions: Pirates, Profits and Propaganda", "Somalia: Current Conditions and Prospects for a Lasting Peace", "Johann Hari: You Are Being Lied to About Pirates", "Somalia's secret dumps of toxic waste washed ashore by tsunami", "Off the lawless coast of Somalia, questions of who is pirating who. With Somali territorial waters undefended, foreign fishing trawlers began illegally fishing on the Somali seaboard and ships began dumping industrial and other waste off the Somali coast. This was alleged to be the first "successful" hijacking of a large vessel since 2012. [129][130], By the first half of 2010, these increased policing efforts by Somali government authorities on land along with international naval vessels at sea reportedly contributed to a drop in pirate attacks in the Gulf of Aden from 86 a year prior to 33, forcing pirates to shift attention to other areas such as the Somali Basin and the wider Indian Ocean. For faster navigation, this Iframe is preloading the Wikiwand page for . [1], In the early 1980s, prior to the outbreak of the civil war in Somalia, the Somali Ministry of Fisheries and the Coastal Development Agency (CDA) launched a development program focusing on the establishment of agricultural and fishery cooperatives for artisanal fishermen. Piraten haben vor der Küste Somalias ein Schiff einer Lübecker Reederei gekapert. Troy S. Thomas, Stephen D. Kiser, William D. Casebeer (2005). [69], A 2010 report suggested that piracy off the coast of Somalia led to a decrease of revenue for Egypt as fewer ships use the Suez Canal (estimated loss of about $642 million), impeded trade with neighboring countries, and negatively impacted tourism and fishing in the Seychelles. He added that he believes the toxic waste dumping is "a disaster off the Somali coast, a disaster (for) the Somali environment, the Somali population", and that what he terms "this illegal fishing, illegal dumping of waste" helps fuel the civil war in Somalia since the illegal foreign fishermen pay off corrupt local officials or warlords for protection or to secure counterfeit licenses. [77], In 2008, there were also allegations that the pirates received assistance from some members of the Somali diaspora. Somali prisoners convicted of piracy, stand behind a gate of the prison in Garowe, Puntland state, in northeastern Somalia, on December 14, 2016. Officials from the Indian Navy reported that a total of 52 men were apprehended, but of that 24 are believed to be Thai fishermen who were hostages of the 28 African pirates. A maritime intelligence source told CBS News that it was "'inconceivable' to Western intelligence agencies that al Qaeda would not be getting some financial reward from the successful hijackings". [70], The methods used in a typical pirate attack have been analyzed.

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